acid base balance

Last reviewed 01/2018

To ensure an acid-base balance the body has to deal with the following:

  • the daily fixed acid load of 50 to 100 mmoles
  • the daily carbon dioxide production of 13,000 to 15,000 mmoles

Homeostatic mechanisms maintain the following normal range of pH by regulation of the pCO2 and bicarbonate:

  • pH: 7.36 to 7.42
  • pCO2: 4.7 to 5.7 kPa (regulated by ventilation)
  • bicarbonate: 24 to 30 mM (regulated by the kidneys)