raspberry ketone in management of obesity
Last reviewed 05/2023
Raspberry ketone is an ingredient found in raspberries (Rubus idaeus) that may have weight loss potential given preliminary findings in rodents and cell cultures, i.e. prevention of weight gain during a high-fat diet, and enhanced norepinephrine-lipolysis, increased adiponectin expression, and translocation of hormone-sensitive lipase in adipocytes (1,2). A more recent study found that raspberry ketone was protective against non alcoholic fatty liver in rats fed with a high fat diet (3).
- raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl) butan-2-one; RK) is a major aromatic
compound of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus)
- the structure of RK is similar to the structures of capsaicin and synephrine,
compounds known to exert anti-obese actions and alter the lipid metabolism
- the structure of RK is similar to the structures of capsaicin and synephrine, compounds known to exert anti-obese actions and alter the lipid metabolism
Evidence for efficacy for weight loss in humans:
Prograde Metabolism (METABO) is a multi-ingredient dietary supplement that contains primarily raspberry ketone, caffeine, capsaicin, garlic, ginger and Citrus aurantium and is suggested to be used in combination with an exercise and nutrition program
- in humans, oral ingestion of certain capsaicinoids, (active component of chilli peppers from the genus Capsicum) has been shown to increase energy expenditure, lipolysis and fat oxidation, activate brown adipose tissue and stimulate the systemic release of norepinephrine
- bioactive compounds found in the rhizomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts have been shown to influence many key features of the metabolic syndrome by modulating adipocytokine secretion from adipose tissue, reducing body fat accumulation, decreasing circulating insulin and markers of systemic inflammation in murine and cell culture models, with similar findings emerging from studies in humans
- extracts of Citrus aurantium, standardized for p-synephrine and other bioactive amines have been shown to increase resting metabolic rate and enhance weight loss in human clinical trials
- in an eight week randomised controlled trial,METABO administration (2 capsules
at breakfast and 2 capsules at lunchtime) was a safe and effective adjunct
to an eight-week diet and exercise weight loss program by augmenting improvements
in body composition, waist and hip girth. Adherence to the eight-week weight
loss program also led to beneficial changes in body fat in placebo group (4)
- of the 45 subjects who completed the study, significant differences
were observed in:
- body weight (METABO -2.0% vs. placebo -0.5%, P < 0.01), fat mass (METABO -7.8 vs. placebo -2.8%, P < 0.001), lean mass (METABO +3.4% vs. placebo +0.8%, P < 0.03), waist girth (METABO -2.0% vs. placebo -0.2%, P < 0.0007), hip girth (METABO -1.7% vs. placebo -0.4%, P < 0.003), and energy levels per anchored visual analogue scale (VAS) (METABO +29.3% vs. placebo +5.1%, P < 0.04)
- during the first 4 weeks, effects/trends for maintaining elevated serum leptin (P < 0.03) and decreased serum resistin (P < 0.08) in the METABO group vs. placebo were also observed. No changes in systemic hemodynamics, clinical blood chemistries, adverse events, or dietary intake were noted between groups
- of the 45 subjects who completed the study, significant differences were observed in:
- there is evidence for the prevention of weight gain and protection against development of non-alcoholic fatty liver in rodents fed with a high-fat diet. In humans there is minimal study evidence but the 8 week study using a preparation containing raspberry ketone (METABO) augmented improvements in body composition, waist and hip girth
- "...although this research seems to confirm earlier results suggesting that raspberry ketone may offer some protection against obesity, health and nutrition practitioners urge clients to be wary of the newfound popularity of the supplement until more research is available.." (5)
- 1) Morimoto C, Satoh Y, Hara M, Inoue S, Tsujita T, Okuda H. Anti-obese action of raspberry ketone. Life Sci. 2005;10:194-204.
- 2) Park KS. Raspberry ketone increases both lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in 3 T3-L1 adipocytes. Planta Med. 2010;10:1654-1658.
- 3) Wang L et al. Raspberry ketone protects rats fed high-fat diets against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis J Med Food 2012;15 (5): 495-503
- 4) Lopez HL et al.Eight weeks of supplementation with a multi-ingredient weight loss product enhances body composition, reduces hip and waist girth, and increases energy levels in overweight men and women. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013 Apr 19;10(1):22. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-10-22.
- 5) Peregrin T. Frequently asked questions of the Academy's knowledge center. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013 Jul;113(7):887-91